Immortality of soul and rebirth
The whole theory of eternal quality of soul is based on the logic of ‘nothing can be created from nothingness’ (the unreal has no existence and the real never ceases to be.: Geeta 2nd Ch 16th stanza) . But we have observed that all matters are changing and some times destroyed and converted into energy ; which energy itself according to philosophy is a non-living thing that is ‘asat’. The energy cannot think by itself. What is life (jeeva) or soul is still a mystery. Man cannot think or accept that he who existed at a time will become null and void after death , which is against any logic. When man thinks of life - death and soul and re-rebirth, he thinks about only his own mind and human body. But what about the germs. Insects, invertebrate, animals and plants which are created multiplied in millions and die or vanish in a short time without any ‘Karma’? How they come from the ‘absolute’(super power or Brahma) and go without any purpose or goal. In this Universe of trillions and trillions of stars and nebulas, man is a ‘speck’ compared to the vastness of universe and so I do not see much difference to an insect and a man, placed in the universe. But how I wonder that even a small insect ex: an ant or a man is perfectly biologically mechanized to protect and reproduce it self with a maximum accuracy of mathematical calculations and programmed genes beyond the reach of the wisest man. When we talk of goal of life and rebirth, I think that we should think of all kinds of living beings to suit the General Philosophy of life cycle . As we are social beings we must have an individual goal and social principles to live peacefully and happily. The creation of life (and its body) by nature is with perfect chemistry and mathematical precision and inherent programs; it takes to derive that there is a super power having super-intelligence that is GOD or ‘Brahma’ with a super consciousness and intelligence. The goal of life is to be found by the individual himself. Regarding rebirth, though there are some exceptional examples of memory of previous life, and ‘NDE’(near death experiences), final word cannot be said ; it goes on the explanation and experience of soul itself. Neither we can experience it nor experiment it. We only have to accept or rely on the scriptures or the sayings of the saints without any arguments. The meaning and goal of life is probably well explained in the first two stanzas of Isha Upanishat:
îsHâ vâsyamidaM sarvaM yat kiñca jagatyâM jagat,
tena tyaktena bhuñjîthâ mâ gRidhaH kasya sviddhanam. 1.
The whole universe from the tiniest to the colossal is to be (thought) covered by Isha or the Brahma(Sri Shankara); So you have to live by lending help to others renouncing profit or return; and enjoy yourself the life with contentment (bhunjeetha – feed yourself and help others; one has to work hard and earn more than he needs and keep himself healthy and help others.). Be not greedy. Because the riches does not belong to any one (as it is to be parted with death). ( I have interpreted this stanza with simple meaning as a family man and a social being; the ascetics interpret differently to their convenience, to renounce everything and leave(neglect) the word ‘bhunjeetha’. It (the ideal) is for the ‘Grihastas’. The seer of these stanzas is a ‘grihasta’ having duties of a king )
kûrvanneveha karmâni jijîviSecchataM samâH,
evaM tvayi nânyatheto'sti na karma lipyate nare. (2.)
2. Doing sincerely the duties (social and religious) in this world one should wish to live for a hundred years. Thus it is the only the way and no other way is there than this; action (karma) cleaves not to a man (soul).
Probably these two stanzas summarize the second and third- the two chapters of Geeta; the Jnana yoga and karma yoga.
“**pretyâbhigacchanti ye ke câtmahano janâH”. (3)
Those who do not understand the true nature of soul (slayers of soul will be passed to the world of darkness) will enter the birth cycle of this world of ignorance. .
« agne naya supathâ râye asmân** » (18)
O Brahman (agni the eternal fire or light) lead us in good path (assist us to follow the path of truth and virtue)
This is the final request and probably the goal of life for every Indivdual( to follow the good path).
The final question is :-
(1) Is there re-birth for a person who leads an honest and clean life? Because knowingly or unknowingly he follows the karma yoga.
(2) Do all the souls of living beings from the smallest germ to the biggest mammal have the rebirth or have they no souls?
(3) where do the trillions of these souls come from and go to? How are they created according to philosophy? They are born in seconds in billions and die in minutes.
Why is man is only an exception regarding rebirth and sin (and good) in philosophy?